Tyler Merbler (CC BY 2.0)

In December 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives voted to impeach President Donald Trump (R) on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress. After an inexplicable delay, the articles were eventually submitted to the U.S. Senate, which voted in February 2020 to acquit on both counts.

My intention had been to seriously review the articles well before the Senate took them up. I was going to produce an analysis similar to the one I produced on the question of whether the Mueller report revealed any obstruction of justice by Trump. I had it outlined and had gotten part-way into it, but then there was a death in the family, other things came up, and before I got everything back in order COVID-19 happened. And by the time I got everything back in order again, the news cycle had long passed me by and impeachment was but a distant memory . . . or so I thought.

I still planned to come back to it. It needs the analysis and consideration that I never had time to give to it. But now, in the waning days of the Trump presidency, he has been impeached again (in the wake of the siege at the Capitol), and there has been serious political discussion of invoking the Section 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to remove Trump from office. So here we are again.

First, I’m going to handle impeachment. I’ll explain the conditions under which it should be used, and review, in turn, the two articles of impeachment from 2019 and the one that was passed by the House of Representatives earlier today.

Second, I am going to handle Section 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment. I’ll explain the conditions for its use and whether or not recent events would justify it being invoked against Trump.


The United States House of Representatives has voted to impeach President Donald Trump (R) a second time. The House cast votes this afternoon on one article of impeachment alleging that Trump incited an insurrection when he spoke to supporters on January 6, 2021. Some of those supporters rioted and stormed the U.S. Capitol.

The 232-197 vote was largely along party lines. Among those who voted, all House Democrats voted to impeach, and all but ten Republicans voted against. Four members, all Republicans, were not present or did not cast votes.

Trump was impeached on other charges in 2019, and is the first president to have been impeached multiple times. Only two previous presidents have been impeached—President Andrew Johnson (D) in 1868 and President Bill Clinton (D) in 1998. Both were acquitted in Senate trials, and no president has ever been removed from office. Articles of impeachment against President Richard Nixon (R) passed the House Judiciary Committee in 1974 but Nixon resigned before they could be considered by the full House.

The U.S. Senate holds impeachment trials, which are presided over by the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. It would require a vote by a two-thirds super-majority of senators to convict and remove the president from office. Trump’s term in office ends at noon on January 20, and it is unclear if an impeachment trial can be held after the subject of the impeachment is no longer in office.

The Siege of the Capitol

How did we get here? Come on. Don’t be silly. You know how we got here.

The blame for today’s reprehensible events at the U.S. Capitol lays primarily at the feet of the criminals and terrorists who stormed and vandalized the building. They chose to do what they did, and should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. But there are others who bear at least some responsibility for getting America to where it is today.

An obvious candidate for scorn is President Donald Trump (R), who continues to claim—falsely—that his reelection was stolen by widespread voter fraud. Oh, there was fraud, as there is in every election, but it was not enough to change the result. The only state where the outcome is really in question is Pennsylvania, and it alone would not be enough to give Trump a win. President Trump, you contributed to this outrage.

But he is not alone.

Virginia House of Delegates, Special, 2021

A special election will be held on January 5 to fill vacancies in the 2nd and 90th districts of the Virginia House of Delegates. I make the following recommendations in those races:

  • 2nd District: Former Delegate Carol Foy (D-VA 2nd) resigned in December to focus on her gubernatorial campaign. Candi King (D) and Heather Mitchell (R) stand as candidates to replace her. I recommend voting for Heather Mitchell.
  • 90th District: Former Delegate Joseph Lindsey (D-VA 90th) resigned in November after being appointed as a state judge. Sylvia Bryant (R) and Norfolk City Councilwoman Angelia Graves (Superward 7), who is running as a Democrat, stand as candidates to replace him. I recommend voting for Sylvia Bryant.

Election 2020 Results (Final)

U.S. Presidential Electors

Joe Biden (D)
Electors: 306

Arizona (11)
California (55)
Colorado (9)
Connecticut (7)
Delaware (3)
D.C. (3)
Georgia (16)
Hawaii (4)
Illinois (20)
Maine (3) (split)
Maryland (10)
Massachusetts (11)
Michigan (16)
Minnesota (10)
Nebraska (1) (split)
Nevada (6)
New Hampshire (4)
New Jersey (14)
New Mexico (5)
New York (29)
Oregon (7)
Pennsylvania (20)
Rhode Island (4)
Vermont (3)
Virginia (13)
Washington (12)
Wisconsin (10)

Donald Trump (R)
Electors: 232

Alabama (9)
Alaska (3)
Arkansas (6)
Florida (29)
Idaho (4)
Indiana (11)
Iowa (6)
Kansas (6)
Kentucky (8)
Louisiana (8)
Maine (1) (split)
Mississippi (6)
Missouri (10)
Montana (3)
Nebraska (4) (split)
North Carolina (15)
North Dakota (3)
Ohio (18)
Oklahoma (7)
South Carolina (9)
South Dakota (3)
Tennessee (11)
Texas (38)
Utah (6)
West Virginia (5)
Wyoming (3)

Ballot Races
U.S. President (VA)
Joe Biden (D):54.11%
Jo Jorgensen (L):1.45%
Donald Trump (R):44.00%
U.S. Senate, VA
Daniel Gade (R):43.91%
Mark Warner (D):55.99%
U.S. House, VA-10th
Aliscia Andrews (R):43.37%
Jennifer Wexton (D):56.51%
Ballot Issues
VA Redistricting Amend.
VA Veteran Tax Amend.
Loudoun School Bonds
Loudoun Pub. Safety Bonds
Loudoun Parks & Rec. Bonds
Loudoun Transp. Bonds

Scott Bradford has been putting his opinions on his website since 1995—before most people knew what a website was. He has been a professional web developer in the public- and private-sector for over twenty years. He is an independent constitutional conservative who believes in human rights and limited government, and a Catholic Christian whose beliefs are summarized in the Nicene Creed. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Public Administration from George Mason University. He loves Pink Floyd and can play the bass guitar . . . sort-of. He’s a husband, pet lover, amateur radio operator, and classic AMC/Jeep enthusiast.